module plfa.part1.Naturals where

The night sky holds more stars than I can count, though fewer than five thousand are visible to the naked eye. The observable universe contains about seventy sextillion stars.

But the number of stars is finite, while natural numbers are infinite. Count all the stars, and you will still have as many natural numbers left over as you started with.

The naturals are an inductive datatype

Everyone is familiar with the natural numbers

0
1
2
3
...

and so on. We write for the type of natural numbers, and say that 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on are values of type , indicated by writing 0 : ℕ, 1 : ℕ, 2 : ℕ, 3 : ℕ, and so on.

The set of natural numbers is infinite, yet we can write down its definition in just a few lines. Here is the definition as a pair of inference rules:

--------
zero : ℕ

m : ℕ
---------
suc m : ℕ

And here is the definition in Agda:

data  : Set where
  zero : 
  suc  :   

Here is the name of the datatype we are defining, and zero and suc (short for successor) are the constructors of the datatype.

Both definitions above tell us the same two things:

  • Base case: zero is a natural number.
  • Inductive case: if m is a natural number, then suc m is also a natural number.

Further, these two rules give the only ways of creating natural numbers. Hence, the possible natural numbers are:

zero
suc zero
suc (suc zero)
suc (suc (suc zero))
...

We write 0 as shorthand for zero; and 1 is shorthand for suc zero, the successor of zero, that is, the natural that comes after zero; and 2 is shorthand for suc (suc zero), which is the same as suc 1, the successor of one; and 3 is shorthand for the successor of two; and so on.

Exercise seven (practice)

Write out 7 in longhand.

-- Your code goes here

Unpacking the inference rules

Let’s unpack the inference rules. Each inference rule consists of zero or more judgments written above a horizontal line, called the hypotheses, and a single judgment written below, called the conclusion. The first rule is the base case. It has no hypotheses, and the conclusion asserts that zero is a natural. The second rule is the inductive case. It has one hypothesis, which assumes that m is a natural, and the conclusion asserts that suc m is a also a natural.

Unpacking the Agda definition

Let’s unpack the Agda definition. The keyword data tells us this is an inductive definition, that is, that we are defining a new datatype with constructors. The phrase

ℕ : Set

tells us that is the name of the new datatype, and that it is a Set, which is the way in Agda of saying that it is a type. The keyword where separates the declaration of the datatype from the declaration of its constructors. Each constructor is declared on a separate line, which is indented to indicate that it belongs to the corresponding data declaration. The lines

zero : ℕ
suc  : ℕ → ℕ

give signatures specifying the types of the constructors zero and suc. They tell us that zero is a natural number and that suc takes a natural number as argument and returns a natural number.

You may have noticed that and don’t appear on your keyboard. They are symbols in unicode. At the end of each chapter is a list of all unicode symbols introduced in the chapter, including instructions on how to type them in the Emacs text editor. Here type refers to typing with fingers as opposed to data types!

The story of creation

Let’s look again at the rules that define the natural numbers:

  • Base case: zero is a natural number.
  • Inductive case: if m is a natural number, then suc m is also a natural number.

Hold on! The second line defines natural numbers in terms of natural numbers. How can that possibly be allowed? Isn’t this as useless a definition as “Brexit means Brexit”?

In fact, it is possible to assign our definition a meaning without resorting to unpermitted circularities. Furthermore, we can do so while only working with finite sets and never referring to the infinite set of natural numbers.

We will think of it as a creation story. To start with, we know about no natural numbers at all:

-- In the beginning, there are no natural numbers.

Now, we apply the rules to all the natural numbers we know about. The base case tells us that zero is a natural number, so we add it to the set of known natural numbers. The inductive case tells us that if m is a natural number (on the day before today) then suc m is also a natural number (today). We didn’t know about any natural numbers before today, so the inductive case doesn’t apply:

-- On the first day, there is one natural number.
zero : ℕ

Then we repeat the process. On the next day we know about all the numbers from the day before, plus any numbers added by the rules. The base case tells us that zero is a natural number, but we already knew that. But now the inductive case tells us that since zero was a natural number yesterday, then suc zero is a natural number today:

-- On the second day, there are two natural numbers.
zero : ℕ
suc zero : ℕ

And we repeat the process again. Now the inductive case tells us that since zero and suc zero are both natural numbers, then suc zero and suc (suc zero) are natural numbers. We already knew about the first of these, but the second is new:

-- On the third day, there are three natural numbers.
zero : ℕ
suc zero : ℕ
suc (suc zero) : ℕ

You’ve got the hang of it by now:

-- On the fourth day, there are four natural numbers.
zero : ℕ
suc zero : ℕ
suc (suc zero) : ℕ
suc (suc (suc zero)) : ℕ

The process continues. On the n‘th day there will be n distinct natural numbers. Every natural number will appear on some given day. In particular, the number n first appears on day n+1. And we never actually define the set of numbers in terms of itself. Instead, we define the set of numbers on day n+1 in terms of the set of numbers on day n.

A process like this one is called inductive. We start with nothing, and build up a potentially infinite set by applying rules that convert one finite set into another finite set.

The rule defining zero is called a base case, because it introduces a natural number even when we know no other natural numbers. The rule defining successor is called an inductive case, because it introduces more natural numbers once we already know some. Note the crucial role of the base case. If we only had inductive rules, then we would have no numbers in the beginning, and still no numbers on the second day, and on the third, and so on. An inductive definition lacking a base case is useless, as in the phrase “Brexit means Brexit”.

Philosophy and history

A philosopher might observe that our reference to the first day, second day, and so on, implicitly involves an understanding of natural numbers. In this sense, our definition might indeed be regarded as in some sense circular, but we need not let this disturb us. Everyone possesses a good informal understanding of the natural numbers, which we may take as a foundation for their formal description.

While the natural numbers have been understood for as long as people can count, the inductive definition of the natural numbers is relatively recent. It can be traced back to Richard Dedekind’s paper “Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen?” (What are and what should be the numbers?), published in 1888, and Giuseppe Peano’s book “Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita” (The principles of arithmetic presented by a new method), published the following year.

A pragma

In Agda, any text following -- or enclosed between {- and -} is considered a comment. Comments have no effect on the code, with the exception of one special kind of comment, called a pragma, which is enclosed between {-# and #-}.

Including the line

{-# BUILTIN NATURAL  #-}

tells Agda that corresponds to the natural numbers, and hence one is permitted to type 0 as shorthand for zero, 1 as shorthand for suc zero, 2 as shorthand for suc (suc zero), and so on. The declaration is not permitted unless the type given has exactly two constructors, one with no arguments (corresponding to zero) and one with a single argument of the same type given in the pragma (corresponding to successor).

As well as enabling the above shorthand, the pragma also enables a more efficient internal representation of naturals using the Haskell type for arbitrary-precision integers. Representing the natural n with zero and suc requires space proportional to n, whereas representing it as an arbitrary-precision integer in Haskell only requires space proportional to the logarithm of n.

Imports

Shortly we will want to write some equations that hold between terms involving natural numbers. To support doing so, we import the definition of equality and notations for reasoning about it from the Agda standard library:

import Relation.Binary.PropositionalEquality as Eq
open Eq using (_≡_; refl)
open Eq.≡-Reasoning using (begin_; _≡⟨⟩_; _∎)

The first line brings the standard library module that defines equality into scope and gives it the name Eq. The second line opens that module, that is, adds all the names specified in the using clause into the current scope. In this case the names added are _≡_, the equality operator, and refl, the name for evidence that two terms are equal. The third line takes a module that specifies operators to support reasoning about equivalence, and adds all the names specified in the using clause into the current scope. In this case, the names added are begin_, _≡⟨⟩_, and _∎. We will see how these are used below. We take these as givens for now, but will see how they are defined in Chapter Equality.

Agda uses underbars to indicate where terms appear in infix or mixfix operators. Thus, _≡_ and _≡⟨⟩_ are infix (each operator is written between two terms), while begin_ is prefix (it is written before a term), and _∎ is postfix (it is written after a term).

Parentheses and semicolons are among the few characters that cannot appear in names, so we do not need extra spaces in the using list.

Operations on naturals are recursive functions

Now that we have the natural numbers, what can we do with them? For instance, can we define arithmetic operations such as addition and multiplication?

As a child I spent much time memorising tables of addition and multiplication. At first the rules seemed tricky and I would often make mistakes. It came as a shock to me to discover recursion, a simple technique by which every one of the infinite possible instances of addition and multiplication can be specified in just a couple of lines.

Here is the definition of addition in Agda:

_+_ :     
zero + n = n
(suc m) + n = suc (m + n)

Let’s unpack this definition. Addition is an infix operator. It is written with underbars where the arguments go, hence its name is _+_. The first line is a signature specifying the type of the operator. The type ℕ → ℕ → ℕ, indicates that addition accepts two naturals and returns a natural. Infix notation is just a shorthand for application; the terms m + n and _+_ m n are equivalent.

The definition has a base case and an inductive case, corresponding to those for the natural numbers. The base case says that adding zero to a number, zero + n, returns that number, n. The inductive case says that adding the successor of a number to another number, (suc m) + n, returns the successor of adding the two numbers, suc (m + n). We say we use pattern matching when constructors appear on the left-hand side of an equation.

If we write zero as 0 and suc m as 1 + m, the definition turns into two familiar equations:

 0       + n  ≡  n
 (1 + m) + n  ≡  1 + (m + n)

The first follows because zero is an identity for addition, and the second because addition is associative. In its most general form, associativity is written

 (m + n) + p  ≡  m + (n + p)

meaning that the location of parentheses is irrelevant. We get the second equation from the third by taking m to be 1, n to be m, and p to be n. We write = for definitions, while we write for assertions that two already defined things are the same.

The definition is recursive, in that the last line defines addition in terms of addition. As with the inductive definition of the naturals, the apparent circularity is not a problem. It works because addition of larger numbers is defined in terms of addition of smaller numbers. Such a definition is called well founded.

For example, let’s add two and three:

_ : 2 + 3  5
_ =
  begin
    2 + 3
  ≡⟨⟩    -- is shorthand for
    (suc (suc zero)) + (suc (suc (suc zero)))
  ≡⟨⟩    -- inductive case
    suc ((suc zero) + (suc (suc (suc zero))))
  ≡⟨⟩    -- inductive case
    suc (suc (zero + (suc (suc (suc zero)))))
  ≡⟨⟩    -- base case
    suc (suc (suc (suc (suc zero))))
  ≡⟨⟩    -- is longhand for
    5
  

We can write the same derivation more compactly by only expanding shorthand as needed:

_ : 2 + 3  5
_ =
  begin
    2 + 3
  ≡⟨⟩
    suc (1 + 3)
  ≡⟨⟩
    suc (suc (0 + 3))
  ≡⟨⟩
    suc (suc 3)
  ≡⟨⟩
    5
  

The first line matches the inductive case by taking m = 1 and n = 3, the second line matches the inductive case by taking m = 0 and n = 3, and the third line matches the base case by taking n = 3.

Both derivations consist of a signature (written with a colon, :), giving a type, and a binding (written with an equal sign, =), giving a term of the given type. Here we use the dummy name _. The dummy name can be reused, and is convenient for examples. Names other than _ must be used only once in a module.

Here the type is 2 + 3 ≡ 5 and the term provides evidence for the corresponding equation, here written in tabular form as a chain of equations. The chain starts with begin and finishes with (pronounced “qed” or “tombstone”, the latter from its appearance), and consists of a series of terms separated by ≡⟨⟩.

In fact, both proofs are longer than need be, and Agda is satisfied with the following:

_ : 2 + 3  5
_ = refl

Agda knows how to compute the value of 2 + 3, and so can immediately check it is the same as 5. A binary relation is said to be reflexive if every value relates to itself. Evidence that a value is equal to itself is written refl.

In the chains of equations, all Agda checks is that each term simplifies to the same value. If we jumble the equations, omit lines, or add extraneous lines it will still be accepted. It’s up to us to write the equations in an order that makes sense to the reader.

Here 2 + 3 ≡ 5 is a type, and the chains of equations (and also refl) are terms of the given type; alternatively, one can think of each term as evidence for the assertion 2 + 3 ≡ 5. This duality of interpretation—of a type as a proposition, and of a term as evidence—is central to how we formalise concepts in Agda, and will be a running theme throughout this book.

Note that when we use the word evidence it is nothing equivocal. It is not like testimony in a court which must be weighed to determine whether the witness is trustworthy. Rather, it is ironclad. The other word for evidence, which we will use interchangeably, is proof.

Exercise +-example (practice)

Compute 3 + 4, writing out your reasoning as a chain of equations.

-- Your code goes here

Multiplication

Once we have defined addition, we can define multiplication as repeated addition:

_*_ :     
zero    * n  =  zero
(suc m) * n  =  n + (m * n)

Computing m * n returns the sum of m copies of n.

Again, rewriting turns the definition into two familiar equations:

0       * n  ≡  0
(1 + m) * n  ≡  n + (m * n)

The first follows because zero times anything is zero, and the second follows because multiplication distributes over addition. In its most general form, distribution of multiplication over addition is written

(m + n) * p  ≡  (m * p) + (n * p)

We get the second equation from the third by taking m to be 1, n to be m, and p to be n, and then using the fact that one is an identity for multiplication, so 1 * n ≡ n.

Again, the definition is well founded in that multiplication of larger numbers is defined in terms of multiplication of smaller numbers.

For example, let’s multiply two and three:

_ =
  begin
    2 * 3
  ≡⟨⟩    -- inductive case
    3 + (1 * 3)
  ≡⟨⟩    -- inductive case
    3 + (3 + (0 * 3))
  ≡⟨⟩    -- base case
    3 + (3 + 0)
  ≡⟨⟩    -- simplify
    6
  

The first line matches the inductive case by taking m = 1 and n = 3, The second line matches the inductive case by taking m = 0 and n = 3, and the third line matches the base case by taking n = 3. Here we have omitted the signature declaring _ : 2 * 3 ≡ 6, since it can easily be inferred from the corresponding term.

Exercise *-example (practice)

Compute 3 * 4, writing out your reasoning as a chain of equations.

-- Your code goes here

Exercise _^_ (recommended)

Define exponentiation, which is given by the following equations:

m ^ 0        =  1
m ^ (1 + n)  =  m * (m ^ n)

Check that 3 ^ 4 is 81.

-- Your code goes here

Monus

We can also define subtraction. Since there are no negative natural numbers, if we subtract a larger number from a smaller number we will take the result to be zero. This adaption of subtraction to naturals is called monus (a twist on minus).

Monus is our first use of a definition that uses pattern matching against both arguments:

_∸_ :     
m      zero   =  m
zero   suc n  =  zero
suc m  suc n  =  m  n

We can do a simple analysis to show that all the cases are covered.

  • Consider the second argument.
    • If it is zero, then the first equation applies.
    • If it is suc n, then consider the first argument.
      • If it is zero, then the second equation applies.
      • If it is suc m, then the third equation applies.

Again, the recursive definition is well founded because monus on bigger numbers is defined in terms of monus on smaller numbers.

For example, let’s subtract two from three:

_ =
  begin
    3  2
  ≡⟨⟩
    2  1
  ≡⟨⟩
    1  0
  ≡⟨⟩
    1
  

We did not use the second equation at all, but it will be required if we try to subtract a larger number from a smaller one:

_ =
  begin
    2  3
  ≡⟨⟩
    1  2
  ≡⟨⟩
    0  1
  ≡⟨⟩
    0
  

Exercise ∸-examples (recommended)

Compute 5 ∸ 3 and 3 ∸ 5, writing out your reasoning as a chain of equations.

-- Your code goes here

Precedence

We often use precedence to avoid writing too many parentheses. Application binds more tightly than (or has precedence over) any operator, and so we may write suc m + n to mean (suc m) + n. As another example, we say that multiplication binds more tightly than addition, and so write n + m * n to mean n + (m * n). We also sometimes say that addition associates to the left, and so write m + n + p to mean (m + n) + p.

In Agda the precedence and associativity of infix operators needs to be declared:

infixl 6  _+_  _∸_
infixl 7  _*_

This states operators _+_ and _∸_ have precedence level 6, and operator _*_ has precedence level 7. Addition and monus bind less tightly than multiplication because they have lower precedence. Writing infixl indicates that all three operators associate to the left. One can also write infixr to indicate that an operator associates to the right, or just infix to indicate that parentheses are always required to disambiguate.

Currying

We have chosen to represent a function of two arguments in terms of a function of the first argument that returns a function of the second argument. This trick goes by the name currying.

Agda, like other functional languages such as Haskell and ML, is designed to make currying easy to use. Function arrows associate to the right and application associates to the left

ℕ → ℕ → ℕ stands for ℕ → (ℕ → ℕ)

and

_+_ 2 3 stands for (_+_ 2) 3.

The term _+_ 2 by itself stands for the function that adds two to its argument, hence applying it to three yields five.

Currying is named for Haskell Curry, after whom the programming language Haskell is also named. Curry’s work dates to the 1930’s. When I first learned about currying, I was told it was misattributed, since the same idea was previously proposed by Moses Schönfinkel in the 1920’s. I was told a joke: “It should be called schönfinkeling, but currying is tastier”. Only later did I learn that the explanation of the misattribution was itself a misattribution. The idea actually appears in the Begriffschrift of Gottlob Frege, published in 1879.

The story of creation, revisited

Just as our inductive definition defines the naturals in terms of the naturals, so does our recursive definition define addition in terms of addition.

Again, it is possible to assign our definition a meaning without resorting to unpermitted circularities. We do so by reducing our definition to equivalent inference rules for judgments about equality:

n : ℕ
--------------
zero + n  =  n

m + n  =  p
---------------------
(suc m) + n  =  suc p

Here we assume we have already defined the infinite set of natural numbers, specifying the meaning of the judgment n : ℕ. The first inference rule is the base case. It asserts that if n is a natural number then adding zero to it gives n. The second inference rule is the inductive case. It asserts that if adding m and n gives p, then adding suc m and n gives suc p.

Again we resort to a creation story, where this time we are concerned with judgments about addition:

-- In the beginning, we know nothing about addition.

Now, we apply the rules to all the judgment we know about. The base case tells us that zero + n = n for every natural n, so we add all those equations. The inductive case tells us that if m + n = p (on the day before today) then suc m + n = suc p (today). We didn’t know any equations about addition before today, so that rule doesn’t give us any new equations:

-- On the first day, we know about addition of 0.
0 + 0 = 0     0 + 1 = 1    0 + 2 = 2     ...

Then we repeat the process, so on the next day we know about all the equations from the day before, plus any equations added by the rules. The base case tells us nothing new, but now the inductive case adds more equations:

-- On the second day, we know about addition of 0 and 1.
0 + 0 = 0     0 + 1 = 1     0 + 2 = 2     0 + 3 = 3     ...
1 + 0 = 1     1 + 1 = 2     1 + 2 = 3     1 + 3 = 4     ...

And we repeat the process again:

-- On the third day, we know about addition of 0, 1, and 2.
0 + 0 = 0     0 + 1 = 1     0 + 2 = 2     0 + 3 = 3     ...
1 + 0 = 1     1 + 1 = 2     1 + 2 = 3     1 + 3 = 4     ...
2 + 0 = 2     2 + 1 = 3     2 + 2 = 4     2 + 3 = 5     ...

You’ve got the hang of it by now:

-- On the fourth day, we know about addition of 0, 1, 2, and 3.
0 + 0 = 0     0 + 1 = 1     0 + 2 = 2     0 + 3 = 3     ...
1 + 0 = 1     1 + 1 = 2     1 + 2 = 3     1 + 3 = 4     ...
2 + 0 = 2     2 + 1 = 3     2 + 2 = 4     2 + 3 = 5     ...
3 + 0 = 3     3 + 1 = 4     3 + 2 = 5     3 + 3 = 6     ...

The process continues. On the m‘th day we will know all the equations where the first number is less than m.

As we can see, the reasoning that justifies inductive and recursive definitions is quite similar. They might be considered two sides of the same coin.

The story of creation, finitely

The above story was told in a stratified way. First, we create the infinite set of naturals. We take that set as given when creating instances of addition, so even on day one we have an infinite set of instances.

Instead, we could choose to create both the naturals and the instances of addition at the same time. Then on any day there would be only a finite set of instances:

-- In the beginning, we know nothing.

Now, we apply the rules to all the judgment we know about. Only the base case for naturals applies:

-- On the first day, we know zero.
0 : ℕ

Again, we apply all the rules we know. This gives us a new natural, and our first equation about addition.

-- On the second day, we know one and all sums that yield zero.
0 : ℕ
1 : ℕ    0 + 0 = 0

Then we repeat the process. We get one more equation about addition from the base case, and also get an equation from the inductive case, applied to equation of the previous day:

-- On the third day, we know two and all sums that yield one.
0 : ℕ
1 : ℕ    0 + 0 = 0
2 : ℕ    0 + 1 = 1   1 + 0 = 1

You’ve got the hang of it by now:

-- On the fourth day, we know three and all sums that yield two.
0 : ℕ
1 : ℕ    0 + 0 = 0
2 : ℕ    0 + 1 = 1   1 + 0 = 1
3 : ℕ    0 + 2 = 2   1 + 1 = 2    2 + 0 = 2

On the n‘th day there will be n distinct natural numbers, and n × (n-1) / 2 equations about addition. The number n and all equations for addition of numbers less than n first appear by day n+1. This gives an entirely finitist view of infinite sets of data and equations relating the data.

Writing definitions interactively

Agda is designed to be used with the Emacs text editor, and the two in combination provide features that help to create definitions and proofs interactively.

Begin by typing:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
m + n = ?

The question mark indicates that you would like Agda to help with filling in that part of the code. If you type C-c C-l (pressing the control key while hitting the c key followed by the l key) the question mark will be replaced:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
m + n = { }0

The empty braces are called a hole, and 0 is a number used for referring to the hole. The hole will display highlighted in green. Emacs will also create a window displaying the text

?0 : ℕ

to indicate that hole 0 is to be filled in with a term of type . Typing C-c C-f will move you into the next hole.

We wish to define addition by recursion on the first argument. Move the cursor into the hole and type C-c C-c. You will be given the prompt:

pattern variables to case (empty for split on result):

Typing m will cause a split on that variable, resulting in an update to the code:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = { }0
suc m + n = { }1

There are now two holes, and the window at the bottom tells you the required type of each:

?0 : ℕ
?1 : ℕ

Going into hole 0 and type C-c C-, will display information on the required type of the hole, and what free variables are available:

Goal: ℕ
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
n : ℕ

This strongly suggests filling the hole with n. After the hole is filled, you can type C-c C-space, which will remove the hole:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = { }1

Again, going into hole 1 and type C-c C-, will display information on the required type of the hole, and what free variables are available:

Goal: ℕ
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
n : ℕ
m : ℕ

Going into the hole and type C-c C-r will fill it in with a constructor (if there is a unique choice) or tell you what constructors you might use, if there is a choice. In this case, it displays the following:

Don't know which constructor to introduce of zero or suc

Filling the hole with suc ? and typing C-c C-space results in the following:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = suc { }1

Going into the new hole and typing C-c C-, gives similar information to before:

Goal: ℕ
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
n : ℕ
m : ℕ

We can fill the hole with m + n and type C-c C-space to complete the program:

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = suc (m + n)

Exploiting interaction to this degree is probably not helpful for a program this simple, but the same techniques can help with more complex programs. Even for a program this simple, using C-c C-c to split cases can be helpful.

More pragmas

Including the lines

{-# BUILTIN NATPLUS _+_ #-}
{-# BUILTIN NATTIMES _*_ #-}
{-# BUILTIN NATMINUS _∸_ #-}

tells Agda that these three operators correspond to the usual ones, and enables it to perform these computations using the corresponding Haskell operators on the arbitrary-precision integer type. Representing naturals with zero and suc requires time proportional to m to add m and n, whereas representing naturals as integers in Haskell requires time proportional to the larger of the logarithms of m and n. Similarly, representing naturals with zero and suc requires time proportional to the product of m and n to multiply m and n, whereas representing naturals as integers in Haskell requires time proportional to the sum of the logarithms of m and n.

Exercise Bin (stretch)

A more efficient representation of natural numbers uses a binary rather than a unary system. We represent a number as a bitstring:

data Bin : Set where
  ⟨⟩ : Bin
  _O : Bin  Bin
  _I : Bin  Bin

For instance, the bitstring

1011

standing for the number eleven is encoded as

⟨⟩ I O I I

Representations are not unique due to leading zeros. Hence, eleven is also represented by 001011, encoded as:

⟨⟩ O I O I I

Define a function

inc : Bin → Bin

that converts a bitstring to the bitstring for the next higher number. For example, since 1100 encodes twelve, we should have:

inc (⟨⟩ I O I I) ≡ ⟨⟩ I I O O

Confirm that this gives the correct answer for the bitstrings encoding zero through four.

Using the above, define a pair of functions to convert between the two representations.

to   : ℕ → Bin
from : Bin → ℕ

For the former, choose the bitstring to have no leading zeros if it represents a positive natural, and represent zero by ⟨⟩ O. Confirm that these both give the correct answer for zero through four.

-- Your code goes here

Standard library

At the end of each chapter, we will show where to find relevant definitions in the standard library. The naturals, constructors for them, and basic operators upon them, are defined in the standard library module Data.Nat:

-- import Data.Nat using (ℕ; zero; suc; _+_; _*_; _^_; _∸_)

Normally, we will show an import as running code, so Agda will complain if we attempt to import a definition that is not available. This time, however, we have only shown the import as a comment. Both this chapter and the standard library invoke the NATURAL pragma, the former on , and the latter on the equivalent type Data.Nat.ℕ. Such a pragma can only be invoked once, as invoking it twice would raise confusion as to whether 2 is a value of type or type Data.Nat.ℕ. Similar confusions arise if other pragmas are invoked twice. For this reason, we will usually avoid pragmas in future chapters. Information on pragmas can be found in the Agda documentation.

Unicode

This chapter uses the following unicode:

ℕ  U+2115  DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL N (\bN)
→  U+2192  RIGHTWARDS ARROW (\to, \r, \->)
∸  U+2238  DOT MINUS (\.-)
≡  U+2261  IDENTICAL TO (\==)
⟨  U+27E8  MATHEMATICAL LEFT ANGLE BRACKET (\<)
⟩  U+27E9  MATHEMATICAL RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET (\>)
∎  U+220E  END OF PROOF (\qed)

Each line consists of the Unicode character (), the corresponding code point (U+2115), the name of the character (DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL N), and the sequence to type into Emacs to generate the character (\bN).

The command \r gives access to a wide variety of rightward arrows. After typing \r, one can access the many available arrows by using the left, right, up, and down keys to navigate. The command remembers where you navigated to the last time, and starts with the same character next time. The command \l works similarly for left arrows.

In place of left, right, up, and down keys, one may also use control characters:

C-b  left (backward one character)
C-f  right (forward one character)
C-p  up (to the previous line)
C-n  down (to the next line)

We write C-b to stand for control-b, and similarly. One can also navigate left and right by typing the digits that appear in the displayed list.